A “Juvenile” or “Child” means a person who has not completed eighteen years of age.
According to International Law, a ‘Child’ means every human being below the age of 18 years. Today this is a universally accepted definition of a child which comes from the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC).
Under the Indian Laws,
Section 2 (k) of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act,2000 defines “juvenile” or “Child” as a person who has not completed eighteenth year of age.
Definitions of Juvenile/Child under various national legislations:
- Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.
Section 2 (ii), “Child” means a person who has not completed the age of 14 years.
- Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929.
Section 2 (a), “Child” means a person who, if a male, has not completed twenty one years of age, and if a female, has not completed eighteen years of age.
- Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956.
Section 2 (a), “Child” means a person who has not completed the age of sixteen years.
Children/Juveniles need care and protection?(CCNP)
According to Section 2 (d) of Juvenile Justice Act, a child in needs of care and protection means:
- child who is found without any home or settled place or abode and without any ostensible means of subsistence.
- Child who is found begging or who is either a street child or a working child.
- Child who resides with a person, whether a guardian of the child or not, and such person has threatened to kill or injure the child or abused and there is a reasonable likelihood of the threat being carried out or has killed, abused or neglected some other child or children and there is a reasonable likelihood of the child in question being killed, abused or neglected by that person.
- Child who is mentally or physically challenged or children suffering from terminal or incurable disease having no one to support or look after.
- Child who has a parent or guardian, such parent or guardian is unfit or incapacitated to exercise control over the child.
- Child who does not have parents and no one is willing to take care of or whose parents have abandoned him or who is missing or run away child and whose parents cannot be found after reasonable inquiry.
- Child who is being grossly abused, tortured or exploited for the purpose of sexual abuse or illegal acts.
- Child who is found vulnerable and is likely to be inducted into drug abuse or trafficking.
- Child who is being or is likely to be abused for unconscionable gain.
- Child who is a victim of any armed conflict civil commotion or natural calamity.
Juvenile/Child in conflict with law?(JICL)
Section 2 (l) of the Juvenile Justice Act, 2000 has defined “juvenile in conflict with law” as a juvenile who is alleged to have committed an offence and has not completed eighteenth year of age as on the date of commission of such offence.